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Diabetes: Types, Symptoms, Treatments, Food and More

The information you are going to get from this Article are:
1. What is Diabetes Mellitus?
2. Types of Diabetes
3. Symptoms of Diabetes
4. Treatments for Diabetes
5. Foods good for Diabetes
6. Foods bad for Diabetes

What is Diabetes Mellitus?

Our body consists of a pair of brown, bean-like organs called Kidneys. Kidneys are located just below the rib cage and behind the peritoneum (a membrane lining the abdominal cavity that covers and protects most of the organs in the abdomen). The position of the left kidney is slightly higher than the right. This is because the liver (the second largest organ of the human body) is also present on the right side. A kidney consists of an outer shell called the Renal Cortex, a central part called the Renal Medulla, and an inner part called the Renal Pelvic. The kidney filters the blood from the renal artery, from where the blood moves into the functional units of the kidney called the nephrons. There are millions of nephrons in one kidney. The nephrons start from the renal cortex and dip into the pyramids present in the renal medulla. The nephrons filter the blood and remove the waste products from the blood. The waste (urine) is then collected by the renal calyces which are present in the renal pelvis from where the urine passes into the ureter. After completing the process and removing the waste the blood is reabsorbed by the renal vein. The area from where the renal artery, renal vein, and ureter come out of the kidney is called the hilum.

Types of Diabetes

Type 1:

In type 1 diabetes, the body produces less or no insulin. Because the pancreatic beta cells are unable to produce insulin. In type 1 diabetes, the immune system senses the pancreatic beta cells as foreign invaders. As a result of autoimmune response, the autoantibodies are secreted by the white blood cells and attack and destroy the beta cells. That is why the pancreas produces little or no insulin and cells get no glucose. And the level of glucose increases in the bloodstream causing a condition called Hyperglycemia. Another condition called Ketosis occurs when the body starts to break down the fats as a source of energy. As a continuous breakdown of fats, resulting in the aggregation of ketone bodies. When this condition grows to a high level it results in Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA).

Type 2:

We have already discussed that our body breaks down the food we eat into glucose. And with the help of insulin, glucose is used by the cells to make energy. In type 2 diabetes the glucose stays in the bloodstream. This is because of the abnormality of receptors it becomes unable for the insulin to bind with the receptors or the pancreas doesn’t make enough insulin. The high glucose levels in the blood cause hyperglycemia. As a result, for avoiding hyperglycemia the pancreas makes more and more insulin. Gradually the pancreas loses the ability to generate sufficient insulin. Not treating hyperglycemia could cause diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic nonketotic syndrome (HHNS). In HHNS due to high levels of glucose, the kidney filters the high amount of glucose from the blood into the urine along with the high quantity of water. But when someone drinks less water, it becomes difficult for the kidney to fulfill the demand of filtering the glucose from the blood into the urine. Resulting in a high concentration of glucose in the blood ending up in the condition called hyperosmolarity. This condition causes severe dehydration because it pulled out the water from the tissues of the body. This is called Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic nonketotic syndrome.
The blood vessels that cluster the kidneys can be damaged by diabetes which results in kidney damage. It is due to the high blood pressure that causes an increase in pressure in the filtering system of the kidneys. It is also called Insulin Resistance.

Symptoms of Diabetes

Type 1:

Confusion, Dry mouth, Abdominal pain, Frequent urination, Excessive hunger, Shortness of breath, Stomach pain, etc.

Type 2:

Excessive thirst and urination, feeling tired, weight loss, blurry vision, excessive hunger, etc.

Treatments for Diabetes

Firstly, for treatment must consult your doctor.

1. Insulin Therapy

In this therapy, the body’s insulin is replaced by insulin therapy. Try to normalize the blood sugar levels and prevent the problems. Type 1 diabetes is called insulin-dependent.

2. Blood Glucose Monitoring

This procedure is used to check the concentration of glucose in the blood by using a glucose meter. For monitoring, use the needle given in the test kit to pierce (cut) the side of the finger. Hold the end of the test strip to the drop of the blood. After a few seconds, the screen will display the blood sugar level.

3. Exercises

Walking, Cycling, Weight lifting, etc.

4. Healthy Diet

Doing a healthy diet is very important for diabetic patients. Eating healthy vegetables and fruits, taking a regular meal, and staying away from foods high in carbohydrates are included in a healthy diet plan.

Foods Good for Diabetes

1. Broccoli

This vegetable is very good for diabetes. It consists of antioxidants, vitamins, and nutrients. Broccoli balances the glucose level in the blood. Broccoli also contains fibers due to which you will feel full for a longer period.

2. Kale

Kale is high in fibers, antioxidants, and nutrients. Vitamin C in kale helps lower the blood sugar level. Vitamin C also reduces the inflammation

3. Peaches

Peaches are also good for diabetics because they are low in calories, and contain potassium, fiber, and vitamin A and C. It also helps reduce weight.

Foods Bad for Diabetes

1. Potato

Because they are very high in carbohydrates than other vegetables and have a very little amount of nutrients. Potatoes can increase the blood sugar level which is not good for diabetic people.

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