The information you are going to get from this Article are:
1. What is the working mechanism of the Immune system?
2. What are HIV and AIDs? Are both the same thing?
3. Does an HIV patient always gets AIDS?
4. What is the Origin of HIV?
5. What is Kaposi’s Sarcoma?
6. Which category (type) of HIV is more common?
7. What are the signs and symptoms of HIV?
8. Is there any cure for HIV?
What is HIV & AIDS?
HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus), is a retrovirus (A group of viruses that needs the cell’s body for replication) that attacks the immune system and destroys certain white blood cells, especially T cells. The virus fuses with the cell’s body, take control of its DNA and starts to make copies. After completing the copies the viruses leave the cell’s body and attack the other cells. The infected cell loses the ability to give immunity and dies. In this way, the viruses spread and kill other cells and damage the immune system. Due to a weak immune system, other infections attack the body which are called “opportunity infections (OI)”. For example, Encephalitis (which cause inflammation in the brain), Tuberculosis (TB), chronic diarrhea, etc. AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) is a chronic and life-threatening disease. It is a condition that arises after severe damage caused by HIV to the immune system. AIDS is caused when the body is attacked by opportunity infections. It’s the last stage of HIV.
Does an HIV Patient always get AIDS?
In most cases, if the HIV patient is taking his medication for HIV, there will be more chances that he will not get AIDS. But if HIV is not treated for several years, then it will lead to AIDS.
Origin of HIV & AIDS
In the nineties, this virus is transmitted from the type of Chimpanzees in Africa carrying a virus called SIV (simian immunodeficiency virus). The virus was transmitted because coming in contact with the blood of Chimpanzees being hunted by the people.
Kaposi’s Sarcoma (KS)
It is a type of cancer that causes abnormal tissues to grow under the skin, from the lining of the mouth to the anus, and can also spread to lymph nodes. It is a malignant (dangerous) vascular disease. It is caused by a virus called human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8). This disease is more common in HIV and AIDS patients because homosexual people get this disease. The symptoms of KS are stomach pain, chest pain, and lesion (an area in the organ or tissue that gets damaged by injury or disease) in different parts of the body such as the face, throat, nose, etc. These lesions are red or purple or brown. Treatments include surgery, cryosurgery, radiation therapy, etc.
Types of HIV
his type is the most common type of HIV. HIV-1 attacks the CD4 (proteins that are present on the surface of certain immune cells such as T-cells) and damages them. CD4 cells fight the foreign invaders that cause infections. As these proteins are destroyed, HIV-1 causes severe damage to the immune system. This can also lead to AIDS.
It is a rare and less progressive infection as compared to HIV-1. The viral infection rate in the bloodstream is also low and the patient who has HIV-2 can live longer without symptoms as compared to HIV-1.
Causes of HIV & AIDS
It is caused due to unprotective sex. Coming in contact with semen, blood, or vaginal fluid. It can also get due to sharing of injection needles, during childbirth from mother to the child, breastfeeding, infected blood transformation, etc.
Symptoms of HIV
There are many symptoms such as Rashes, Chills, Muscle aches, Fatigue, and Sore throat but Fever is the most common symptom. In the early stage of HIV, a flu-like symptom called acute retroviral syndrome (ARS) occurs whose symptoms resemble the influenza syndrome. The symptoms of HIV last between a few weeks or months after causing infection. For diagnosing the infection the doctors also take the blood, urine, and saliva samples of the patient.
Symptoms of AIDS
It includes rapid weight loss, Diarrhea, repeating fever, night sweats, Pneumatic, extreme tiredness, inflammation of lymph nodes in the armpits or neck, pain in the mouth or anus, red, pink, or purple blotches inside or outside the skin, memory loss, etc.
Treatment for HIV & AIDS
Before starting any treatment, consult your doctor first.
HIV is an incurable disease, but there are antiretroviral medications that reduce the progression of HIV in the body. There are some classes of antiretroviral medication. For Example, Fusion inhibitors (prevent the virus from attaching to the cells), reverse transcriptase inhibitors, protease inhibitors, and integrase inhibitors. These drugs avoid viral infections from producing and spreading in the body. The antiretroviral medication slows down the HIV infection so that and enables the immune system to fight the virus.