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Acne: Effects, Types and Prevention

The information you are going to get from this Article are:
1. What is acne and how does it produce?
2. Does acne affects all ages?
3. What are the types of acne?
4. What are the causes of acne?
5. Does diet has any impact on acne?
6. What is the relation between diet and acne?
7. Different ways to avoid acne?


Acne, the scientific name “Acne Vulgaris” is a chronic disease. It can occur on your face, neck, back, and shoulders. It produces due to the sebaceous glands present just under the skin that lubricate (the lubricant is a substance that reduces friction and allows smoother movement) the skin and hair. These glands secrete sebum an oily substance that protects hairs and skin from drying out. The sebum comes out on the surface of the skin through a pore or by traveling the hair follicles (a tunnel-like structure present in the outer layer of skin. Each follicle contains one hair and a sebaceous gland. The growth of the hair starts from the bottom of the. After the creation of more cells, the hair grows out of the skin surface. Sebaceous glands are present near the hair follicles). Hair follicles shed dead skin cells in a routine that carries out of the body by sebum. When your body secretes more sebum and dead skin cells, they form a clog together, due to which blemishing occurs. Bacterias that are present in a small amount around the skin, start to move into the clog causing inflammation.


Acne develops after puberty. It is more common in teenagers and adolescents but can continue to occur in adults. But most often people get rid of the acne in their early 20s. 

Types Of Acne

1. Whiteheads (Closed Comedones)

When the bump of bacteria and oil under the skin starts to grow, the bump starts to appear on the surface of the skin called a white head. This bump trapped the bacteria, oil, and dead skin cells inside it mean the pore is closed.

2. Blackheads (Open Comedones)

When some of the oil in the white head starts to break the skin surface, oxygen present outside starts to interact with the oil exposed forming a blackhead. The blackheads stay open that’s why they are called open comedones. Large blackheads are also called “dilated pores of the winer”.

3. Papule

When the Whiteheads are persisted (remain) long enough to cause infection the immune system sends white blood cells to fight bacteria which then form a red bump that in medical terms called a papule. It is the raised area of skin tissue that has a diameter of less than 1cm. It is a skin lesion (the region of tissue that is damaged due to injury or disease) having distinct borders and having different shapes, colors and sizes. The pus is not visible in the papule.

4. Pustule

When the Papule is given enough time, the White blood cells clump together to form pus which then expands and forms a pustule on the surface of the skin. The pustule is a big pimple that is full of yellowish fluid (pus). The pus is visible in the pustule.

5. Cystic Acne

It is a severe type of acne that is painful and filled with pus. It produces deep under the skin.

6. Nodulocystic Acne

It is a severe type of acne that affects the face and upper trunk. Just like a cyst, it grows deep under the skin but it is harder than cysts because it does not have pus. Not treated for long, it can cause scars.


1. Hormonal Acne

In males, a rise in the production of testosterone hormone stimulates the sebaceous glands to produce more sebum. In both sexes, androgen boosts the production of sebum. In females, the development of acne is due to the menstrual cycle or pregnancy.

2. Diet

The foods high in fats and carbohydrates are high in the glycemic index or GI (it is a measurement of how fast a food can cause an increase in blood sugar levels. The GI ranges from 0 to 100.) causing an increase in blood sugar level and more insulin production. Insulin activates more androgens. This leads to the production of a high amount of sebum.
The foods like white bread and sodas are having a high glycemic index.

3. Stress

When a person is feeling stressed, his body starts to release a stress hormone called “cortisol”. When the level of cortisol rises, it causes an increase in oil production on the skin. As a result, acne can be produced.


Before starting any treatment, consult your doctor first.

Primarily, take care of your Hygiene. Wash your face with lukewarm water, use face wash and creams prescribed by your doctor, avoid rubbing cloth harshly on your face, use a clean cloth. Use a moisturizer prescribed by your doctor. Use make-up that does not cause acne, after using make-up must wash it before going to sleep. Don’t touch your face with your hands because they spread bacteria that also irritate inflamed facial. Never pop your pimples because this spread the infection on your skin. Stay out of the sun because it causes redness and dark discoloration. whenever go out in the daytime use sunscreen and SPF(sun protective factor) prescribed by your doctor. Exercise regularly because it’s not only good for your body but also protects your skin from acne and other problems.

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